Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory

Reading: Biological Bases


Reading Slideshow


NPR, July 21, 2015
The Test That Can Look Into A Child's (Reading) Future

Reading Slideshow

Music and Education Rutgers University, New York Academy of Sciences Conference Workshop, 2011



Bonacina, Krizman, White-Schwoch, Kraus Clapping in time parallels literacy and calls upon overlapping neural mechanisms in early readers. Ann NY Acad Sci.
Kraus, White-Schwoch Auditory neurophysiology of reading impairment. In Pediatric Audiology: Diagnosis, Technology, and Management.


Lam, White-Schwoch, Zecker, Hornickel, Kraus Neural stability: A reflection of automaticity in reading. Neuropsychologia.

Neef, Müller, Liebig, Schaadt, Grigutsch, Gunter, Wilcke, Kirsten, Skeide, Kraft, Kraus, Emmrich, Brauer, Boltze, Friederici Dyslexia risk gene relates to representation of sound in the auditory brainstem. Dev Cogn Neurosci.

Woodruff Carr, Fitzroy, Tierney, White-Schwoch, Kraus Incorporation of feedback during beat synchronization is an index of neural maturation and reading skills. Brain Lang.

Tierney, White-Schwoch, MacLean, Kraus Individual differences in rhythmic skills: links with neural consistency and linguistic ability. J Cogn Neurosci.

Abrams, Nicol, White-Schwoch, Zecker, Kraus Population responses in primary auditory cortex simultaneously represent the temporal envelope and periodicity features in natural speech. Hear Res.


White-Schwoch, Woodruff Carr, Thompson, Anderson, Nicol, Bradlow, Zecker, Kraus. Auditory processing in noise: A preschool biomarker for literacy. PLOS Biology
Kraus, Anderson. Beat-keeping ability relates to reading readiness. Hear J


Tierney, Kraus. Auditory-motor entrainment and phonological skills: precise auditory timing hypothesis (PATH). Front Hum Neurosci
Kraus, Slater, Thompson, Hornickel, Strait, Nicol, White-Schwoch. Auditory learning through active engagement with sound: Biological impact of community music lessons in at-risk children. Front Aud Cogn Neurosci.
Slater, Strait, Skoe, O’Connell, Thompson, Kraus Longitudinal effects of group music instruction on literacy skills in low-income children. PlosOne.
Woodruff Carr, White-Schwoch, Tierney, Strait, Kraus Beat synchronization predicts neural speech encoding and reading readiness in preschoolers. PNAS.
Kraus, Anderson Toward a biologic index of APD. Hear J.
Kraus Editorial: Neural synchrony: opening an umbrella. Hear J.


Tierney, Kraus Musical training for the development of language skills. In: Changing Brains – Applying Brain Plasticity to Advance and Recover Human Ability.
White-Schwoch, Kraus Physiologic discrimination of stop consonants relates to phonological ability in pre-readers: A biomarker for subsequent reading ability? Front Hum Neurosci.
Kraus, Anderson Treatment for auditory based learning impairments: Evidence supports efficacy. Hear J.
Kraus, Anderson For reading development, auditory processing is fundamental. Hear J.
Tierney, Kraus The ability to move to a beat is linked to the consistency of neural responses to sound. J Neurosci.
Tierney, Strait, Kraus Resting gamma power is linked to reading ability in adolescents. Dev Sci.
Tierney, Strait, O'Connell, Kraus Developmental changes in resting gamma power from age three to adulthood. Clin Neurophysiol.
Hornickel, Kraus Unstable representation of sound: A biological marker of dyslexia J Neurosci.
Hornickel, Zecker, Bradlow, Kraus Assistive listening devices drive neuroplasticity in children with dyslexia PNAS.
Hornickel, Lin, Kraus Speech-evoked auditory brainstem responses reflect familial and cognitive influences. Dev Sci.


Hornickel, Kraus Breaking news: cABR can predict auditory-based communication skills. Hear J.
Kraus Biological impact of music and software-based auditory training J Commun Disord.
Hornickel Anderson, Skoe, Yi, Kraus Subcortical representation of speech fine structure relates to reading ability NeuroReport.
Krizman, Skoe, Kraus Sex differences in auditory subcortical function Clin Neurophysiol.
Kraus Atypical brain oscillations: a biological basis of dyslexia? Trends Cogn Sci.
Chandrasekaran, Kraus Biological factors contributing to reading ability: subcortical auditory function. In: Developmental Dyslexia: Early Precursors, Neurobehavioral Markers and Biological Substrates.
Kraus Hornickel cABR: a biological probe of auditory processing. Auditory Processing Disorders: Assessment, Management and Treatment.
Kraus Hornickel Meaningful engagement with sound for strengthening communication skills. Auditory Processing Disorders: Assessment, Management and Treatment.


Strait, Hornickel, Kraus Subcortical processing of speech regularities predicts reading and music aptitude in children Behav Brain Funct.
Hornickel, Kraus Objective biological measures for the assessment and management of auditory processing disorder Curr Ped Rev.
Hornickel, Chandrasekaran, Zecker, Kraus Auditory brainstem measures predict reading and speech-in-noise perception in school-aged children Behav Brain Res.


Anderson, Skoe, Chandrasekaran, Kraus Neural timing is linked to speech perception in noise J Neurosci.
Chandrasekaran, Kraus Music, noise-exclusion, and learning Music Percept.
Kraus, Banai Listening, literacy and the neural transcription of sound In: Proceedings of the 1st International Virtual Conference on FM.


Chandrasekaran, Hornickel, Skoe, Nicol, Kraus Context-dependent encoding in the human auditory brainstem relates to hearing speech in noise: Implications for developmental dyslexia Neuron.
Hornickel, Skoe, Nicol, Zecker, Kraus Subcortical differentiation of voiced stop consonants: relationships to reading and speech in noise perception PNAS.
Abrams, Nicol, Zecker, Kraus Abnormal cortical processing of the syllable rate of speech in poor readers J Neurosci.
Banai, Hornickel, Skoe, Nicol, Zecker, Kraus Reading and subcortical auditory function Cereb Cortex.

2008 and earlier

Song, Banai, Kraus Brainstem timing deficits in children with learning impairment may result from corticofugal origins. Audiol Neurotol.
Banai, Kraus The dynamic brainstem: implications for APD In: Current Controversies in Central Auditory Processing Disorder.
Kraus, Banai Auditory processing malleability: focus on language and music. Cur Dir Psychol Sci.
Johnson, Nicol, Zecker, Kraus Auditory brainstem correlates of perceptual timing deficits. J Cogn Neurosci.
Banai, Abrams, Kraus Speech evoked brainstem responses and sensory-based accounts of learning disability Int J Audiol.
Banai, Kraus Neurobiology of (central) auditory processing disorder and language-based learning disability In: Handbook of Central Auditory Processing Disorders.
Banai, Nicol, Zecker, Kraus Brainstem timing: Implications for cortical processing and literacy J Neurosci.
Wible, Nicol, Kraus Correlation between brainstem and cortical auditory processes in normal and language-impaired children Brain.
Russo, Nicol, Zecker, Hayes, Kraus Auditory training improves neural timing in the human brainstem Behav Brain Res.
Warrier, Johnson, Hayes, Nicol, Kraus Learning impaired children exhibit timing deficits and training-related improvements in auditory cortical responses to speech in noise Exp Brain Res.
Wible, Nicol, Kraus Atypical brainstem representation of onset and formant structure of speech sounds in children with language-based learning problems Biol Psych.
Hayes, Warrier, Nicol, Zecker, Kraus Neural plasticity following auditory training in children with learning problems Clin Neurophysiol.
Bradlow, Kraus, Hayes Speaking clearly for children with learning disabilities: Sentence perception in noise JSLHR.
Wible, Nicol, Kraus Abnormal neural encoding of repeated speech stimuli in noise in children with learning problems Clin Neurophysiol.
King, Warrier, Hayes, Kraus Deficits in auditory brainstem encoding of speech sounds in children with learning problems Neurosci Lett.
Cunningham, Nicol, Zecker, Kraus Neurobiologic responses to speech in noise in children with learning problems: Deficits and strategies for improvement Clin Neurophysiol.