Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory

Reading: Biological Bases


Reading Slideshow


NPR, July 21, 2015
The Test That Can Look Into A Child's (Reading) Future

Reading Slideshow

Music and Education

Rutgers University, New York Academy of Sciences Conference Workshop, 2011



Bonacina, Krizman, White-Schwoch, Kraus. (2018) Clapping in time parallels literacy and calls upon overlapping neural mechanisms in early readers. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.


Lam, White-Schwoch, Zecker, Hornickel, Kraus. Neural stability: A reflection of automaticity in reading. Neuropsychologia.

Neef, Müller, Liebig, Schaadt, Grigutsch, Gunter, Wilcke, Kirsten, Skeide, Kraft, Kraus, Emmrich, Brauer, Boltze, Friederici Dyslexia risk gene relates to representation of sound in the auditory brainstem. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience.

Woodruff Carr, Fitzroy AB, Tierney A, White-Schwoch, Kraus Incorporation of feedback during beat synchronization is an index of neural maturation and reading skills. Brain and Language.

Tierney, White-Schwoch, MacLean, Kraus Individual differences in rhythmic skills: links with neural consistency and linguistic ability. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience.

Abrams, Nicol, White-Schwoch, Zecker, Kraus Population responses in primary auditory cortex simultaneously represent the temporal envelope and periodicity features in natural speech. Hearing Research.


White-Schwoch, Woodruff Carr, Thompson, Anderson, Nicol, Bradlow, Zecker, Kraus. Auditory processing in noise: A preschool biomarker for literacy. PLOS Biology
Kraus, Anderson. Beat-Keeping Ability Relates to Reading Readiness. Hearing Journal


Tierney, Kraus. Auditory-motor entrainment and phonological skills: precise auditory timing hypothesis (PATH). Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Kraus, Slater, Thompson, Hornickel, Strait, Nicol, White-Schwoch. Auditory learning through active engagement with sound: Biological impact of community music lessons in at-risk children. Frontiers Aud Cogn Neurosci.
Slater, Strait, Skoe, O’Connell, Thompson, Kraus. Longitudinal effects of group music instruction on literacy skills in low-income children. PlosOne.
Woodruff Carr, White-Schwoch, Tierney, Strait, Kraus. Beat synchronization predicts neural speech encoding and reading readiness in preschoolers. PNAS.


Tierney, Kraus. Musical training for the development of language skills. In: Changing Brains – Applying Brain Plasticity to Advance and Recover Human Ability.
White-Schwoch, Kraus. Physiologic discrimination of stop consonants relates to phonological ability in pre-readers: A biomarker for subsequent reading ability? Frontiers Human Neurosci
Kraus, Anderson. Treatment for Auditory Based Learning Impairments: Evidence Supports Efficacy. Hearing Journal.
Kraus, Anderson. For reading development, auditory processing is fundamental. Hearing Journal
Tierney, Kraus. The ability to move to a beat is linked to the consistency of neural responses to sound. J Neurosci
Tierney A, Strait DL, Kraus N.Resting gamma power is linked to reading ability in adolescents. Developmental Science.
Tierney A, Strait DL, O'Connell S, Kraus N. Developmental changes in resting gamma power from age three to adulthood. Clinical Neurophysiology.
Hornickel J, Kraus N. Unstable representation of sound: A biological marker of dyslexia J Neurosci
Hornickel, Zecker, Bradlow, Kraus Assistive listening devices drive neuroplasticity in children with dyslexia PNAS
Hornickel, Lin, Kraus Speech-evoked auditory brainstem responses reflect familial and cognitive influences. Developmental Sci


Hornickel, Kraus Breaking news: cABR can predict auditory-based communication skills. Hear Journal
Kraus Biological impact of music and software-based auditory training Journal Commun Disord
Hornickel Anderson, Skoe, Yi, Kraus Subcortical representation of speech fine structure relates to reading ability NeuroReport
Krizman, Skoe, Kraus Sex differences in auditory subcortical function Clin Neurophysiol
Kraus Atypical brain oscillations: a biological basis of dyslexia? Trends Cogn Sci
Chandrasekaran, Kraus Biological factors contributing to reading ability: subcortical auditory function In: Developmental Dyslexia: Early Precursors, Neurobehavioral Markers and Biological Substrates


Strait, Hornickel, Kraus Subcortical processing of speech regularities predicts reading and music aptitude in children Behav Brain Funct
Hornickel, Kraus Objective biological measures for the assessment and management of auditory processing disorder Curr Ped Rev
Hornickel, Chandrasekaran, Zecker, Kraus Auditory brainstem measures predict reading and speech-in-noise perception in school-aged children Behav Brain Res


Anderson, Skoe, Chandrasekaran, Kraus Neural Timing is Linked to Speech Perception in Noise J Neurosci
Chandrasekaran, Kraus Music, Noise-Exclusion, and Learning Music Percept
Kraus, Banai Listening, literacy and the neural transcription of sound In: Proceedings of the 1st International Virtual Conference on FM


Chandrasekaran, Hornickel, Skoe, Nicol, Kraus Context-dependent encoding in the human auditory brainstem relates to hearing speech in noise: Implications for developmental dyslexia Neuron
Hornickel, Skoe, Nicol, Zecker, Kraus Subcortical differentiation of voiced stop consonants: relationships to reading and speech in noise perception PNAS
Abrams, Nicol, Zecker, Kraus Abnormal cortical processing of the syllable rate of speech in poor readers J Neurosci
Banai, Hornickel, Skoe, Nicol, Zecker, Kraus Reading and subcortical auditory function Cereb Cortex

2008 and earlier

Banai, Kraus The dynamic brainstem: implications for APD In: Current Controversies in Central Auditory Processing Disorder
Banai, Abrams, Kraus Speech evoked brainstem responses and sensory-based accounts of learning disability Int J Audiol
Banai, Kraus Neurobiology of (central) auditory processing disorder and language-based learning disability In: Handbook of Central Auditory Processing Disorders
Banai, Nicol, Zecker, Kraus Brainstem timing: Implications for cortical processing and literacy J Neurosci
Wible, Nicol, Kraus Correlation between brainstem and cortical auditory processes in normal and language-impaired children Brain
Russo, Nicol, Zecker, Hayes, Kraus Auditory training improves neural timing in the human brainstem Behav Brain Res
Warrier, Johnson, Hayes, Nicol, Kraus Learning impaired children exhibit timing deficits and training-related improvements in auditory cortical responses to speech in noise Exp Brain Res
Wible, Nicol, Kraus Atypical brainstem representation of onset and formant structure of speech sounds in children with language-based learning problems Biol Psych
Hayes, Warrier, Nicol, Zecker, Kraus Neural plasticity following auditory training in children with learning problems Clin Neurophysiol
Bradlow, Kraus, Hayes Speaking clearly for children with learning disabilities: Sentence perception in noise JSLHR
Wible, Nicol, Kraus Abnormal neural encoding of repeated speech stimuli in noise in children with learning problems Clin Neurophysiol
King, Warrier, Hayes, Kraus Deficits in auditory brainstem encoding of speech sounds in children with learning problems Neurosci Lett
Cunningham, Nicol, Zecker, Kraus Neurobiologic responses to speech in noise in children with learning problems: Deficits and strategies for improvement Clin Neurophysiol